Tag Archives: 6360E

How to invest LCD TV Final Assembly factory

Volume Requirements

  • Total estimated time to complete weekly- production volumes with proposed equipment set = 160 hours/per week (+/- 10%)


  • Available time is 80 hours (16hours x 5days)!
  • Factory efficiency not optimum due to:
  • Weekly Scheduling
  • Bottle Neck is SM Lines (Top/Bottom)
  • Occupation of Lines, High Volume PC’s
  • For schedule improvements we propose:
  • To add and reconfigure SMT lines, create dedicated HV PC & PC Monitor SM lines
  • Increase inventory, make longer runs, increase weekly batches, warming up Factory

IM Lines

DIP, PCB Assembly,Chip Mounter, Pick and Place, IC Mounter, High Speed Mounter, Wave soldering,LED lighting, LED Lamp, LED Display, LED tube,UPS, Power Converter, Power Adepter, Mobile Charger, PCB board handling system, Loader, Unloader, Conveyor,Shuttle, Chip Mounter, Pick and Place, IC Mounter, High Speed Mounter Induction Cooker, AC, Electric Cooker, Fan, TV, Settle Box

  • Number of Lines : 3
  • Machine Set: Radial S-3000 x 3, Axial S-4000 x 3
  • Cycle time: Average 15 seconds
  • Intrinsic Availability: 90%
  • Mean Time To Repair: 120 seconds

SM Lines

  • Number of Lines : 4
  • Machine Set: High Speed Chip mounter x 2, IC mounter x 1
  • Cycle time: between 12.60 & 25.29 seconds
  • Intrinsic Availability: 90%
  • Mean Time To Repair: 120 seconds

DIP, PCB Assembly,Chip Mounter, Pick and Place, IC Mounter, High Speed Mounter, Wave soldering,LED lighting, LED Lamp, LED Display, LED tube,UPS, Power Converter, Power Adepter, Mobile Charger, PCB board handling system, Loader, Unloader, Conveyor,Shuttle, Chip Mounter, Pick and Place, IC Mounter, High Speed Mounter Induction Cooker, AC, Electric Cooker, Fan, TV, Settle Box

MI Lines

  • Number of Lines : 4
  • Machine Set:
  • 10 x Assembly stations,each line
  • Delta 5 Wave Solder, each line
  • 4 x Test & Inspect stations, each line
  • Average Cycle Time: 25 seconds


DIP, PCB Assembly,Chip Mounter, Pick and Place, IC Mounter, High Speed Mounter, Wave soldering,LED lighting, LED Lamp, LED Display, LED tube,UPS, Power Converter, Power Adepter, Mobile Charger, PCB board handling system, Loader, Unloader, Conveyor,Shuttle, Chip Mounter, Pick and Place, IC Mounter, High Speed Mounter Induction Cooker, AC, Electric Cooker, Fan, TV, Settle Box








  • Number of Lines : 2
  • Machine Set:
  • 16 x Assembly stations
  • 3 x L-Shape Soak System 30 min
  • Simulation Soak is 30 min with 30 stations x 3
  • Final QC/Test and Pack Out, 3 stations
  • Two identical Lines (19” to 42”) for optimum Efficiency & Flexibility
  • Average Cycle Time: 24 seconds/station

DIP, PCB Assembly,Chip Mounter, Pick and Place, IC Mounter, High Speed Mounter, Wave soldering,LED lighting, LED Lamp, LED Display, LED tube,UPS, Power Converter, Power Adepter, Mobile Charger, PCB board handling system, Loader, Unloader, Conveyor,Shuttle, Chip Mounter, Pick and Place, IC Mounter, High Speed Mounter Induction Cooker, AC, Electric Cooker, Fan, TV, Settle Box









PCB Assembly,SMT,PCB,AI,THT,LED DIP, PCB Assembly,Chip Mounter, Pick and Place, IC Mounter, High Speed Mounter, Wave soldering,LED lighting, LED Lamp, LED Display, LED tube,UPS, Power Converter, Power Adepter, Mobile Charger, PCB board handling system, Loader, Unloader, Conveyor,Shuttle, Chip Mounter, Pick and Place, IC Mounter, High Speed Mounter Induction Cooker, AC, Electric Cooker, Fan, TV, Settle Box 1 S-4000_副本 S4000-Specification-3 PastedGraphic-3




PC Board Handling Improvements in AI Equipment and Machines

PC Board Handling

Improvements in AI Equipment and Machines

Improve ROI with fast tracking your https://finasteridehair.com current Universal Insertion Machine to an Automatic Board Handling System

Upgrade Universal stand alone auto insertion machine to Automatic Board Handling System

Stay ahead of PCB Manufacturing! The digital curve is constantly bending toward demands for digital devices with increased capabilities and FASTER availability. By using the equipment you already own, you can improve upon its capabilities to meet these growing demands. We will use your current Universal Insertion Machine’s capabilities to transition it to an Automatic Board Handling System that will speed up processes and accomplish maximum PCB production successfully.

We at Southern Machinery have the solution to your distinct Automatic Board Handling needs. Whether you require Magazine-to-Magazine Configuration, Destacker/Conveyor-to-Magazine Loader Configuration, or In-line Configuration, we can serve to improve your PCB assembly line.

Upgrade Universal stand alone auto insertion machine to Automatic Board Handling System

Upgrade Universal stand alone auto insertion machine to Automatic Board Handling System

UIC spare parts

Parts of common UIC spare parts list.

Common UIC spare parts  
343871802 ANVIL CUTTER (VCD)
630820201DAMPING PAD
944241607SHEAR BLOCK-LONG (5.63MM)
1844426606UPPER PUSHER
2144426701PUSHER LOWER
2830792201RING WIPER
2940506801END CAP SHIM
3141897211CUTTER LH SEQ
3445592606BLADE SHEAR-RH
3541897212CUTTER RH SEQ
3845592706BLADE SHEAR-LH
3941428501CLINCH NUT ASSY( 41428501)
4140546701LINK ANVIL
4721760002FUSE HOLDER
5314084000CLAMP (SPRING PIN)
5644426607PUSHER UPPER-2.5
5745373901SPRING EXTENSION(cta)
6343077109TIP DRIVER-RH
6443871702CUTTER BUSHING (2 EAR)
6641848601CLAMP RETAINER (vcd)
6944906901SWITCH P.B.MOM, 6292 D.H VCD
7443077009TIP DRIVER-LH
7742513302RAMP BLK
7844241604SHEAR BLOCK
8244241506INSIDE FORMER - LH
8412788000SLEEVE R.H (HEAD ASSY)
8518164000GUIDE WHEEL
9044896901GUIDE BOTTOM
9112516001FEED ARM -RH
9344629702CLAMP JAW 10.5 MM
9444629902CLAMP DUAL JAW 10.5 MM
9744241608BLOCKSHEAR 5mm
9812516000FEED ARM -LH
9917298000PULLEY ( X/Y -MOTOR )

For spare parts we can supply:
1.All of the wearing spare parts of SMT/AI, such as UIC ,Samsung ,Fuji,Juki,Panasonic and so on.
2.Used/New UIC parts which almost can’t be found at the market

AI spare parts、Universal Parts,UIC,TDK.VCD Sequencer.SMT,THT,PCB,PCBA,AI,wave soldering,reflow oven,nozzle,feeder,wave soldering,PCB Assembly, LED, LED lamp, LED display

One Video let you know how Radial Insertion works for Electronic through-hole components assembly

  • Radial Insertion – A radial inserter takes radial leaded through-hole components from reels and creates a sequence of components in order of insertion. Then the machine auto inserts the components into the PCB. The machine can be programmed to bend and cut leads per customer/component specifications.


PC Board Design Checklist For Through Hole Components

PC Board Design Checklist

For Through Hole Components

document should be used as a supplement to existing machine General
Specifications and IM Design Guidelines. This document is designed as a checklist rather than a reference for use
when examining an existing or new product. For detailed specifications
refer to the appropriate General Specification.


PC board considerations

For Axial or Radial auto insertion:


*  Is the overall size of the board within specification? (max/min size varies by machine and board handling type)

*  Is the board thickness within specification?

Possible challenges:

can accept boards from 0.032” to 0.093” thick with no set up change,
axial machines require mechanical adjustment to handle thickness

*  If using automatic board handling, is the board shape acceptable? (i.e. contiguous edges.)

Possible challenges:

Non-contiguous edges, may work but requires testing. Example, instrument cluster.

 Is the board a good candidate for panelization? (i.e. creating
multiple images of the same board on one panel for ease of assembly and
increased throughput.)

*  Is the board warpage within specification?

Possible challenges:

Warpage can cause issues with insertion as well as clinch angle/length, especially on radial machine.

*  Does the PC board contain location reference holes to allow proper fixturing?

Possible challenges:

If product was previously hand assembled it may not have locating holes.

*  Are the components positioned at 0º and/or 90º with respect to the X axis?

Possible challenges:

components are arranged at odd angles because of space constraints or
because designer wanted to keep component body straight. (example: ECCO

*  Are the component hole diameters within specification for each component type (lead diameter) being inserted?

Possible challenges:

Boards currently hand assembled are most likely to have undersize holes.

*  Is there sufficient clearance below the board for the clinched component leads? Consider the following:

*  Solder bridging to other component leads

*  Solder bridging to via holes or adjacent pads

Universal does not specify required clearance to prevent solder
bridging, this should be determined by the customer. However, obvious
cases of conflict should be noted.

*  Is there sufficient clearance for the insertion and clinch tooling? Take into consideration:

*  Previously inserted IM components

*  Previously placed SM components

*  Workboard holder locating and support fixtures

*  Obstructions on the bottom of the board that could interfere with the clinch or board transfer.

Component and tooling considerations



*  Are components packaged properly for automatic insertion? (Tape and reel/ammo pack)

Possible challenges:

Customer may have “sample” components in bulk, are these components readily available in a taped format?

*  Is the component input tape width (i.e. 26mm or “standard”) compatible with the component hole span?

Possible challenges:

does not offer a machine that can accept 26mm input. Virtually all
components are available in 52mm format, however, a subcontractor may
have to deal with “kits” from an OEM that contain 26mm components.

*  Is the insertion tooling (i.e. 5mm, 5.5mm or standard) compatible with the component hole span?

Possible challenges:

the product include both very wide and very narrow span components?
Use tooling selection matrix to evaluate best tooling fit.

*  Is the component hole span compatible with the component body length?

Possible challenges:

Be especially careful when moving product from hand assembly to automatic assembly.

*  Is the component body diameter compatible with the board thickness and insertion tooling requirements?

Possible challenges:

Watch out for very thick boards and/or large diameter components.

*  Is the component lead diameter compatible with the insertion tooling? (i.e. standard vs. large lead)

Possible challenges:

May have to sacrifice (to hand assembly) some insertions at either the large end or the small end of the spectrum.

 Does the component require a stand off between the body and the PC
board? Components requiring a stand off cannot be inserted with an
axial inserter, but may be auto insertable with a radial inserter if
packaged in the proper format.

Possible challenges:

“Stand-off” type resistors are more common where high power handling is required, power supplies, monitors, etc.


*  Are components packaged properly for automatic insertion? (Tape and reel/ammo pack)

Possible challenges:

Customer may have “sample” components in bulk, are these components readily available in a taped format?

 If components are packaged on tape, use the following “quick check”
list to get a general idea of which components may be automatically
inserted: (See note 1 below)

*  Body diameter 13.0mm or less

*  “H” dimension (distance from centerline of feed hole to bottom of component) within acceptable limits

*  Lead diameter within acceptable limits

Possible challenges:

taping specifications are quite involved, use “quick check” list as a
sanity check, forward component samples to applications group for
detailed evaluation.

 Are the lead spans of the components compatible with standard
automatic radial insertion? (i.e. 2.5mm, 5.0mm, 7.5mm or 10.0mm) (See
note 2 below)

Possible challenges:

1)  May have to “sacrifice” some components to hand assembly because of tooling footprint issues or span requirements.

2)  Some PCB’s contain components are non-standard span’s, i.e. 2.0mm, 4.0mm.

*  Are transistor leads in line? (i.e. not in a “triangle” configuration)

*  If the component is required to stand off the PC board, are features built into the component lead to accomplish this?

Possible challenges:

designer may “require” a certain type of standoff without checking to
see if the package is readily available, common with LED applications.



1) The
simplified guidelines were created to draw attention to the most common
areas where components fall outside the limits for auto insertion.
These simplified guidelines should only be used as a general guide.
Component input must meet all criteria called out in the Radial General

2)  Tooling selection will depend upon insertion span requirements as well as board density considerations.   Muniak98-052B  Revised 01-00




Panasonic Radials

About Panasonic

Panasonic is a division of Matsushita (Japan), one of the largest companies in the world.  They are highly vertically integrated in that they manufacture Radial componentry, Radial insertion equipment and end products with PCB’s populated with Radial components (consumer electronics, for example).  This structure affords them some advantages and disadvantages.  The advantages include:


1)                              first hand experience using equipment,

2)                              in-house production testing prior to release of new equipment designs,

3)                              ability to sell components and equipment,

4)                              keen understanding of market trends, new componentry and design considerations from both componentry and end product perspectives.


One glaring disadvantage is that many times their customers are also their competitors–this sometimes causes conflict of interest.


Machine Design:



The RHS was introduced in late 1998.  It operates at a maximum speed of 14,400, and is different from previous Panasonic Radials in 2 main areas:

¨      it uses a sequencer design

¨      it no longer uses guide pins



The sequencer and insertion head designs that Panasonic adopted carry many of the same advantages as the Radial 8.  The additional advantages are:

1)      Auto Recovery is still fast (8 – 10 seconds), even though the RHS uses a sequencer.  The sequencer chain is bi-directional, and increases speed when only travelling with a component.

2)      30% smaller footprint.  Even with a sequencer, the RHS footprint is smaller than the Radial 8.

3)      1800 head rotation, although this feature slows down the machine.



The main disadvantage for Panasonic is that they have no prior experience with this design.  The RHS, consequentially, has gotten off to a bumpy start.  However, we anticipate the experience gap to close quickly.


Shuttle Design

The RH II and RH III utilize a component shuttle system to bring the components to the insertion area.


The advantage of a shuttle system is that “automatic recovery” (repair) can take place quickly.  Once a misinsertion is detected, a replacement component is automatically dispensed and inserted into the original location.  Manufacturers desire this feature as it leads to less operator interface and it ensures that the correct component is reinserted in the correct position and polarity.  This recovery mode is selectable and may be programmed to attempt up to ten (10) “auto recoveries” before the machine stops.  This feature reduces operator interaction and ensures the correct component is inserted.


The shuttle design has two negative impacts on the inserters throughput capability:

1)                              Depleted components cannot be replenished “on the fly”, because the entire shuttle system (all reels/packs) moves to deliver a component to the insertion area.  The inserter must be stopped to replenish reels/ammo packs.  To improve this situation the RH III utilizes a split shuttle (2x 40 inputs = 80 total). While this improves this flaw, it does not eliminate it. Components must be double-loaded to take advantage of this feature and maintain production.

2)                              The specific component location on the shuttle effects throughput.  Shuttle travel time must be added for each insertion cycle.  Reels located at the end of the shuttle system (furthest from the head) will have a longer insertion cycle.  This also requires increased machine programming in order to optimize the component location, and maintain throughput at an acceptable level.


Guide Pin System

The RHII and RHIII use guide pins instead of an insertion head.  The pins come up from the clinch through the holes in the PCB guide the component leads into the PCB while the component is pushed from the top.


The guide pin system provides excellent topside insertion density capability.  However, the cut and clinch, which determines their bottom side density, has a footprint similar in size to that of the Radial 8.


By comparison, the Radial 8 utilizes insertion tooling to guide the component leads into the hole.  The footprint associated with the Radial 8’s insertion head tooling limits the overall topside insertion density capabilities in comparison to Panasonic’s guide pin design.  Panasonic’s guide pins allow for a component to be inserted with only .5mm clearance on all four sides.



The guide pins are delicate and have a tendency to wear and break.  They are only (.040″) 1mm in diameter and approximately 6″ long (152mm).  Operators typically carry “spare” pins in their pocket.


Panasonic Machine types

Panasonic, like Universal, has a number of machine styles.  The RH, RH6, RHB, RH6B, RH II and RH III insert 5mm components with two or three leads and are capable of 2.5mm insertion (2 leads) as an option.  These older models differ in the number of input locations and the size of the components they can insert.  The RH II features 80 input locations on a split shuttle (40 + 40), with a cycle speed of 7,800 CPH (maximum on certain components) vs. 6,000 CPH on other older Panasonic Radial Inserters. The RH III is similar to the RH II, but it is available as a 40, 62, and 80 station machine configurations. The RHUP and the RHU are Panasonic’s large component insertion machines that feature body diameter capability of up to 18mm and 7.5mm lead pitch.  The RHU “special”, features a body diameter capability of 20mm and up to 10mm lead pitch.  These machines are very slow and expensive.


The main advantages of the RH III over the RH II is its price, speed, and automatic recovery features.  It also appears to be priced well below their previous machine models, with pricing estimated at 226K-270K (US$) and a maximum speed of 10,000 cycles per hour.  The RH III’s only “real” performance advantage when compared to the Radial 8 is in terms of its insertion density as discussed earlier in its use of guide pins.  However, this can be offset by the Radial 8’s throughput and reliability.


Panasonic offers a complete product line in both IMC and SMC technologies.  All Panasonic inserters (RH II, RH III and AVK) use a shuttle design to deliver components to the point of insertion.


Two (2) Axial Inserters; Models AVK and AVK

A Jumper Wire Inserter; Model JVK

Odd Form Inserter; Model U2 (which also inserts DIP components), Square Pin Inserter, Model P, Round Pin Inserter, Model G, Eyelet Inserter, Model E


All are designed with board handling capability.


Although Panasonic’s presence is global, their main thrust in IMC has been in Japanese and Korean multi-national companies.  They have a large installed base and as a manufacturer of electronics end products, they utilize much of their equipment in their own plants and influence their many sub contractors to utilize Panasonic equipment as well.


Panasonic’s pricing strategy varies depending upon the geographic location account and the specific situation.  In the United States, for example, in comparison to the Radial 8, Panasonic’s RH product line is much higher in price (although they typically discount between 10 and 15%).  In Southeast Asia, however, their prices are much lower and in some cases their prices have been considerably less than UIC’s (up to 30-40% below UIC list price).



Competitive Checklist – RH II vs. Radial 5




Radial 5







62 Input, Single Shuttle


20-100 Input Sequencer

Top Speed – 8,000 CPH


Machine Speed – 11,000 CPH; 37% Faster than Panasonic

Automatic Recovery

Automatic Recovery

No electronic support system.


Electronic support system (Tech Advisor – Bi-Lingual).


Pin Method – High density insertion.  (Sell Around:  Pin method is complex and expensive, pins break.  See sell around section.)

Guide Jaw – Provides positive control of the component leads; non-fragile.

Small Machine Footprint

Footprint is relative to cost/insertion.  UIC offers superior cost per insertion and two machine shapes.

Machine speed can vary based on component type; 4,000, 6,000, 8,000 CPH.


Constant machine speed for all insertable components; 11,000 CPH.

No parts checker.


Parts Checker (ERV)

Optical Correction Unit

Optical Correction Unit

Fiducials and Pad Sites

Fiducials and Pad Sites

A fiducial is a board feature used for global and local error correction to determine the difference between programmed coordinates and actual locations on the board. This ensures that parts are not placed before their locations are verified.


A pad site is a pad pattern on the production board that can be used in the same manner as a fiducial.


The most typical types of fiducial failures are caused by improper color, size of fiducial, and lighting values. Other factors such as the confidence level and search area can also be trouble spots but as the programmer’s experience level increases, these will be less likely to cause problems.


How many fiducials to use on a board or circuit will depend on board quality and the amount of time the manufacturing process can allocate to finding fiducials. The following is a general guide as to the number of fiducials used and the benefits of accuracy.



Number of Fiducials Found

Correction Possibilities




X and Y



X, Y, and Theta




X, Y, Theta, and Uniform Stretch



X, Y, Theta, and Independent X & Y Stretches

6-10 (max)


X, Y, Theta, Independent X & Y Stretches, and Corners not equal to



The total number of fiducials and pad sites that can be used for a global correction cannot exceed ten.


To use a combination of fiducials and pad sites for global error correction, you must assign them in the Circuit List window.


The total number of fiducials and pad sites that can be used for a local correction cannot exceed five.


To use a combination of fiducials and pad sites for local error correction, you must assign them in the Local Fiducials dialog box in the Placement List window.


When creating a fiducial or pad site, use the Tab key to move between the data fields. If you use the Enter key, the fiducial placement is attempted and error checking is performed.


To successfully create valid fiducial placements:

–      Fiducials must be placed within the borders of the board.

–      Fiducials cannot be placed directly on offsets. (Fiducials placed on circuits

are automatically duplicated on all the offsets associated with that circuit.)

–      Fiducials cannot be partially on a board or circuit.


If a fiducial is on an offset and that offset is rotated, the fiducial location is rotated but the fiducial is not. Only fiducials with rotational symmetry are supported in this manner. All others will not be found.


If multiple fiducial or pad site definitions are selected when using the Fiducial or Pad Site Copy function, all new fiducials and pad sites are distanced from the originals by the same X and Y Offset values.


If fiducials or pad sites are consistently not found by the vision system, lower the confidence level. If the vision system finds objects other than the fiducials or pad sites, increase the confidence level.


When defining a search area, keep in mind that it should be large enough to allow some tolerance in board handling, but not so large that additional board features are found instead of the fiducial or pad.


Some recommended lighting levels for fiducials and pad sites.


Fiducial Type / Pad Site

Inner Ring

Outer Ring

Tinned / Tinned

80 / 80

20 / 20

Solder Mask over Bare Copper (not recommended) / Gold

0 / 0

50 / 35

Bare Copper with Copper Bright / Bare Copper

0 / 0

35 / 35



The pad site functionality is not available for the Odd Form system at this time.


In most cases, standard lighting cannot be used to image a pad site since solder paste or flux may not allow a good contrast between the pad site and the circuit board. Special lighting settings may need to be installed in order to image the pad site. If  Pad Site Find is the only way to get component corrections, and lighting is the only issue, consult your UIC Application Engineer.


Use the Fiducial Lighting procedure located in the Operation Features Module within the User’s Guide, to determine whether a pad site can be imaged with the PEC camera. Verify contrast and the lighting level required.


When to use Pad Site Find

1) When fiducials do not exist on the circuit board

2) When the pad site accurately represents a component type

3) When fiducials do not give an accurate enough correction

4) When accuracy is more important than speed


If any errors occur finding pad sites, you will be taken to the Fiducial Repair screen. In the case of failed pad site finds, manual alignment is not recommended. For GSM1 systems, select the Reject Board button to remove the board. For GSM2 systems, palm down the machine to manually remove the board.


The need for a pad site correction is more typical of fine pitch placements such as C4 placements or fine pitch BGA’s.


Pad sites are based on component definitions. To associate a pad site definition with a component, the component must be defined in the database. Refer to the New Component module for information on adding a component to the database.



PEC Lighting


On the GSM machine, a Pattern Error Correction (PEC) camera passes an image to the vision system which attempts to recognize a programmed fiducial or pad site based on parameters in the Fiducial or Pad Site List. These parameters consist of type and size, center of fiducial identified by its “X,Y coordinates”, and the search area identified by “Search Area X,Y”.


After the PEC camera moves to the programmed location of the fiducial, it illuminates the Search Area using the programmed “IN/OUT” (inner ring/outer ring) light levels. Within the search area of the image, light intensity differences between the fiducial and the board help the vision system detect the fiducial’s edges.


The vision system is able to detect the North, South, East, and West edges of the fiducials by relying on the differences in contrast between the board and the fiducial color. Called vector points, triangles of red, blue, green, and yellow are displayed in the Vision Window.

The vision system uses six vector points per edge (N, S, E,W). In order for the vision system to obtain 100% confidence, 24 out of 24 of the vector points must be detected on an edge of a fiducial. The default confidence level is 80% (19.2 rounded up to 20 vector points).


Since the success of fiducial finds depends on the vision system’s ability to discern the contrast between the board and the fiducial, some combinations of fiducials (or object(s) to find) and their backgrounds may call for different types of PEC cameras. Currently 2-sided and 4-sided lighting is being used and FlexLight, a new feature, will soon be available. The 2-sided PEC camera was non-symmetrical in its lighting pattern. It illuminated in one direction, from the North and South. The 4-sided PEC camera improved on this by illuminating in four directions, from the North, South, East, and West. Originally both cameras used red LED’s.  When looking at solder-mask covered fiducials, the red light would be absorbed by the solder mask (green). To overcome this problem, green LED’s were added. The 4-sided scheme expanded the capability to illuminate gold fiducials on white ceramic as well as fiducials on flexible circuits.


FlexLight (trademark) is an enhanced PEC lighting module.  It was originally developed to address the imaging challenges associated with advanced substrates such as ceramics and flexible circuits.  Although FlexLight was initially targeted at these markets, it can effectively image a wide variety of substrate materials ranging from FR-4 to more exotic materials.  The chief advantages of FlexLight are: 1) Symmetric illumination, 2) Polarization flexibilty,

3) Wavelength flexibility, 4) Ease of reconfiguration, and 5) Monolithic design.


A mechanical support structure holds eight LED petals and an inner LED ring. Each petal is a small printed circuit board containing 10 LED’s.  The petals can contain light sources of various wavelengths ranging from blue to red.  The petals and the inner ring can be exchanged in a “plug-and-play” fashion.  This allows the illumination wavelengths of the module to be quickly and easily changed.  It also facilitates ease of service in the field. The supporting electronics allow the petals to be configured in various series and parallel combinations to support a wide variety of LED’s.


The structure supports an optional polarizing film that covers four of the eight petals as shown in the following diagram.

Corner Feature Enhancement for Multipattern Components


Multipattern components consist of components or objects (RF shields, connectors etc.) which cannot be described adequately as either leaded or leadless components, but rather are defined in terms of an arrangement of geometric features.  The multipattern object is located by locating each of the features of which it is comprised, using a single or multiple fields of view.  One such feature, which is commonly used to locate rectangular or pseudo-rectangular objects, is the corner feature.  At present, this feature is defined simply by entering the length of each of the two line segments, which make up the 90 degree corner (the horizontal corner edge length and the vertical corner edge length).  With this special software, this feature definition has been extended to allow for two more optional parameters.  These parameters define “ignore zones” at the apex of the corner, and allow the image processing to ignore these regions of the edges when locating the corner.  By this means corners which are rounded, chamfered or poorly defined at the apex can still be located by using segments of the corner away from the apex, which subtend 90 degrees to each other.


The diagram below indicates the meaning of each of the parameters.






X2, Y2 should not exceed 25% of X1, Y1

If  X2 or Y2 = 0, the standard corner find is employed






Enhanced Product Setup



A very helpful feature when programming components is Enhanced Product Setup. It consists of two parts, Enhanced Component Setup and Enhanced Board Setup. Each process involves a live image, of the object being taught, to be manipulated while the programmer sees the changes as they are being made.


When defining a new component, fill in as many data fields as possible while paying special attention to the following; Component Height, PreOrient, Number of Leads, Lighting Type, Camera Type, Default Feeder, Default Orientation, and Reject Station.


Enhanced Component Setup supports, Four Spindle, C4, OFA (Oddform Assembly) and High Accuracy (UFP) Heads.


If anything goes wrong with the Platform machine during this entire process (reject station not mounted, feeder not mounted, exclusion zone, drop bin not defined, centering fails due to invalid parameter, etc…) recover by palming the machine down, and up again. Then push the Start button and proceed to pick the part again.


If the Platform machine was not calibrated correctly prior to using EPS, the scale of the drawing may be incorrect and the Draw Component function cannot be used.


All changes made are immediately written back to the database scroll list where the part was defined. Exit the Inspection screen at any time to view the results of the changes there. Nothing is saved permanently until the part is saved.



Common ECS Hinderances and Solutions


Before the part can be picked, all the values associated with component definition must be entered. This is necessary because these values are all needed to inspect a component.


All changes to the drawing are immediately applied to the definition database of the component. If a mistake is made, rectify the error by using the Undo function. No change is permanent until the component is saved.


To switch from editing the body of the drawing to any of the leads/bumps/features, click on the leads/bumps/features. To switch back to editing the body, click where there is no lead/bump/feature.


Due to the method used for programming leads, it can be difficult to line up all the leads over their displayed counterparts. This is because pitches are measured from the center of the side of the component, and when they are adjusted, leads move symmetrically out or in from/to the center. To help the adjustment, if there is an odd number of leads, position the single lead in the center of a side over its corresponding displayed counterpart. If there is an even number of leads, position the two center leads over their displayed counterparts before adjusting the pitch.


To define a C4 component it is sometimes convenient to define only one bump initially, and add bumps when the image is displayed, wherever necessary until the part is found. This is a good procedure because it may be difficult to determine how bumps will image before seeing an image of the part.


When dealing with a large number of leads/bumps at once (over 50), the drawing function will automatically move only the single lead selected, instead of all the leads. This is done to increase the performance of the drawing operations. If less than 50 leads/bumps are selected, they will all be repositioned at once to give a better indication of their final positions.


One of the more difficult things to deal with is when the displayed part’s rotation is slightly off. Make sure that the feeder pick position is optimal to present the part accurately. Use the pick/inspect/drop-off sequence more than once if necessary until the part is basically square on the screen.


Lead groups can cause additional problems. The drawing always assumes that all leads are present on a side, but does not draw some of them if they were deselected in the leadgroup screen. This can make it difficult for pitches to be adjusted.


If the component is too large to fit into a single field of view, the vision system will take more than one image and stop at the first image where it could find all leads/bumps/features. This might be the first image seen, or the last. If the part is found successfully, it will be the last. This makes editing of the components, by using the Draw Component function, difficult. Sometimes it is more convenient in this case to go back and forth between the Database Component Definition screen and the Inspection screen.


When viewing a component on the monitor, the image detail may require enhancement. With the use of Vision Level Diagnostics, the operator can increase or decrease the detail of the viewed image by raising or lowering the current vision level. By increasing the Vision Level Diagnostics to a level 5 setting, the operator can view the image with the maximum amount of detail. Using a lower vision level results in a decrease in display detail.




Specific Component Programming


If a change is necessary while adding a  new component to the database, do not change the component type, exit and begin the procedure again.


The Accuracy field applies only to a GSM2 (Dual Beam) machine. When the value is set at high, this means stop the opposite beam while I place this particular part with the other beam. Our accuracy studies indicate there is no need to ever run the machine with this value set to high. It adversely effects throughput and does not contribute to the accuracy of the machine when placing standard SM devices. Ignore this field for any other machine configuration.


For parts that do require a more accurate placement it may be advantageous to turn on preorient.  This indicates to the machine that the part will be rotated to it’s place rotation prior to being scanned through the upward looking camera.This allows the machine to minimize the amount of correction required after being centered and inherently contributes to a more accurate and repeatable placement.  It does however adversely affect throughtput.  Therefore, if you find you the placement accuracy does not meet your expectation with preorient turned off, turn it on and reevaluate the accuracy/repeatability of your placements.


When choosing a lighting level for BGA, C4, or C4-Pattern components, a level of +7 should only be used with side-lighting.



C4 Types


The following restriction applies to programming C4 components on a machine equipped with an AISI 3500 vision system: A maximum of 16 unique C4 components, with 20 programmed features per component, can be contained in a product. This restriction is based on the number and type of programmed C4 features.


Placement pressure values above 350 grams are typically used for C4 applications. If the placement head is not C4 capable, these pressures will not be possible.


The current bump process is ‘A’, selected as the default. Bump processes B-E are reserved for future UIC vision inspection algorithms.


The X or Y Vector value will be ignored if the X or Y Number value equals 1.


The % Bumps Required for a C4 component is the percentage of bumps required to return an accurate image.


If C4-Pattern is not available from the Component Types list box, you must create a new database. This is done by using the New option under the Database menu bar heading. If desired, existing component definitions can then be brought into the new database using the Merge option.


For C4-Pattern, the value for Critical should be chosen as Yes.


There should be no entry in the Min Precise Patterns, Pattern Inspection, Location Tolerance X, Location Tolerance Y, or Relative Distance fields.


BGA  Types (Requirements and Limitations)


A special version of software is needed, developed after an RFQ, for use with UPS 2.x


The component can only be processed in a single field of view


The appropriate magnification, circular lit camera (circular lit cameras take up 2 additional feeder slots


The vision system must be an AIS630 Lantern vision system only.


The % Bumps Required for a BGA component is the percentage of bumps required simply to display an image.


Missing Ball detection for BGA components


Centering – the vision system identifies the defined features (bumps) and determines the x, y, and theta corrections required for an accurate placement. Bump Process A should be chosen in the component definition.


Inspection – after the centering process is complete, an additional algorithm is applied to determine if any bumps are missing. When centering and inspection are is desired, Bump Process E should be chosen in the component definition.

This software inspects BGAs for missing balls using a two step approach.  First the regular ball find algorithm is executed and five candidates are selected as potential missing ball sites.  The selection is based on either the failure to locate a ball at an expected site, or a low correlation, or ball recognition score.  Then an intelligent pattern recognition algorithm is trained  on sites which are known to contain good ball images, and the trained algorithm is used to classify the suspect sites and verify the presence/absence of a solder ball.  Various graphic overlays are used during the execution of the algorithm:


  • It will be necessary to use circular lighting for bump imaging in order to realize optimum reliability. This is because the image quality of balls with the standard lighting is poor.
  • This algorithm uses a training method based on balls which are found.  If the image quality is such that noise can be incorrectly labeled as a ball, it is possible to mis-train the algorithm and fail to correctly identify missing balls.
  • Only components which fit into a single field of view can be processed.
  • In order to switch on missing ball inspection the customer must select “processing type E” in the product editor (the default is A).  This processing type flag is provided to allow for customer defined image processing and in general is not used.  It is expected that using this flag will have no impact on the overall functionality of the machine, since processing types B-D are still available for customer specific tuning.
  • This will be a special vision release to support the missing ball inspection.
  • The five missing ball candidates are labeled by blue crosses with blue boxes.
  • The trained existing balls around the missing ball candidates are labeled by blue crosses only
  • The recognized missing ball is labeled by a small red cross on the center of the candidate label


If the colored graphics are an annoyance, you can change the Vision Diagnostic Level. The value is probably set at 4 or 5. The range is between 0-5. The lower the value the faster the machine.


BGA Type

1.4x UPS

Pick and Place


2.x UPS

Pick and Place


Special Camera


for inspection

Missing Ball



CBGA (ceramic)




Need Analysis

CCGA, White (ceramic-column)





CCGA, Dark (ceramic-column)








2.6-3.0 Mil/Pixel Camera

Need Analysis

PBGA (plastic)





TBGA (taped)



Circular Lighting




Maximum Single Field of View Size

Minimum Pitch

Minimum Ball Diameter

Super High Mag (0.5 mil/pixel)

4mm (0.160”)

0.125mm (0.005”)

0.075mm (0.003”)

High Mag

(1.0 mil/pixel)

10mm (0.39”)

0.25mm (0.010”)

0.125mm (0.005”)

Medium Mag

(2.6 mil/pixel)

20.8mm (0.8”)

0.5mm (0.20”)

0.25mm (0.010”)

Medium Mag

(3.0 mil/pixel)

24mm (0.8”)

0.5mm (0.20”)

0.25mm (0.010”)

Standard Mag

(4.0 mil/pixel)

32mm (1.25”)

0.8mm (0.031”)

0.4mm (0.016”)


Leaded Components


Lead information must be programmed symmetrically. Information entered for Sides 1 and 2 of the component is input to Sides 3 and 4, respectively. The data can then be edited. To accommodate nonsymmetrical components or components with different lead lengths or pitches, the Lead Groups option may be used.


Lead groups can cause additional problems. The drawing always assumes that all leads are present on a side, but does not draw some of them if they were deselected in the leadgroup screen. This can make it difficult for pitches to be adjusted.


If 0.0 (zero) is entered in any of the following Tolerance data fields, that inspection is bypassed; Lead Tolerance From Body, Lead Tolerance Across Body, Lead Spacing Tolerance, Lead Length Positive Tolerance, Lead Length Negative Tolerance, Coplanarity Tolerance, and Colinearity Tolerance.


If an excessive number of components are rejected, check the component definition relative to vendor specification sheet for the component. Also, use ECS (Enhanced Component Setup) to adjust inspection parameters (geometry, lighting, etc…).


Lead Groups


The Lead Groups window is not used to toggle leads off for the purpose of increasing the speed of vision inspection (SMC components only). This will only result in a rejected component. All components must be defined as they physically exist. Non-symmetrical leads can be accommodated by defining the component as a Special-Leaded Component.


Lead 1 in the component database is not necessarily the component’s electrical pin 1. It is only the first lead in the lower left corner of the component when the component is in the 0° orientation. We define/assign leads as beginning with lead one in the lower left hand corner and count up as we define the part in a counter-clockwise fashion.


If you select the Remove All Leads option, all component leads are toggled off and considered to be phantom leads. If a lead was already toggled off when the Remove All Leads option was selected, it would remain off.


If you select the Enable All Leads option, all component leads are toggled on and are inspected by the vision system. If a lead was already toggled on when Enable All Leads option was selected, it would remain on.


Special Leaded Components


Program the component as if all leads on the same side are identical and symmetrical with each other.

When defining a component with different pitches, find the greatest common denominator and enter that as the pitch.


The machine memory supports a maximum of 15 lead groups per component.


When all lead information is entered, select the Lead Groups option. Select the leads you want to be ignored by the vision system. The leads are now phantomed with just a broken line to indicate their existence.



Let’s use the 23pin SMT connector as an example…  There are physically 12 leads on one side of the device and 11 on the opposite side. It would be a reasonable approach to define both sides as having 23 leads with a pitch of 1mm, and turning off every other lead in a manner where the database matches the physical description of the part. However, by turning off every other lead this creates 23 lead groups, and this is why the machine hangs up!


We define/assign leads as beginning with lead one in the lower left hand corner and count up as we define the part in a counter-clockwise fashion.  For example, for a 14 pin SOIC, lead # 1 is in the lower left corner and lead # 14 is in the upper left corner (assuming the part is defined with the leads facing north and south).  There are two lead groups when we define a 14 pin SOIC.  Lead group 1 is defined as leads 1-7 and lead group 2 is defined as leads 8-14.  However, if you turn off lead 4 there are now 3 lead groups (lead group 1 = leads 1-3, lead group 2 = leads 5-7, and lead group 3 = leads 8-14).  Notice lead 4 is not included.


By turning off every other lead you are creating 23 lead groups. We only have enough RAM on the machine controller to support a maximum of 15 lead groups. However, the number of lead groups is dynamic and can be limited (reduced) by the number of components, component placements, and process complexity.  Therefore, the number of supported lead groups can be £ 15, depending on the product complexity.


Program the part as it is…  Assuming the part is coming in tape and the12 leads are facing 6 O’clock and the 11 leads are facing 12 O’clock, let’s define the part as having 12 leads on side 1 at a pitch of 2mm and side 3 as having 11 leads at a pitch of 2mm.












Component Terminology


Acronym            Name


BGA                   – Ball Grid Array

uBGA                 – micro Ball Grid Array

CBGA                 – Column Ball Grid Array

C4 or Flip Chip   – Controlled Collapse Chip Connection

COB                    – Chip On Board

CSP                     – Chip Scale Package

DCA                   – Direct Chip Attach

FPT                     – Fine Pitch Technology (20 to 40 mil pitch)

ILB                     – Inner Lead Bonding

MCM                  – Multi Chip Module

MELF                 – Metalized ELectrode Face bonded

MSP                    – Mini Square Pack

OLB                    – Outer Lead Bonding

OMPAC              – Over Molded Plastic pad Array Carrier

PBGA                 – Plastic Ball Grid Array

PLCC                  – Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier

PQFP                  – Plastic Quad Flat Package

QFP                     – Quad Flat Package

SOD                    – Small Outline Device

SOIC                   – Small Outline Integrated Circuit

SOJ                     – Small Outline J lead

SOT                     – Small Outline Transistor

SQFP                  – Shrink Quad Flat Package; QFP with a lead pitch of .016” or less

TAB                    – Tape Automated Bonding

TSOP                  – Thin Small Outline Package

UFPT                  – Ulta Fine Pitch Technology (<20 mil pitch)

V-QFP                – Very Small Quad Flat Package

V-SOP                – Very Small Outline Package




Industry Terms


CER-QUAD              – Digital Equipment Component

C-QUAD            – Northern Telecom Package

Tape Pak             – Trade Mark/National Semiconductor

V-PAK         – Vertical Package (Texas Instruments – memory package)