Tag Archives: aoi

Full Line SMT line for LED info@smthelp.com ROI

Timely Support for India’s Rapid SMT Growth

Southern Machinery's LED Solutions

Timely Support for India's Rapid SMT Growth

India's LED and Surface Mount Technology market is poised for extensive growth. There is much development, strategic planning, and intelligent decisions to make along the way. But the direction and decisions that key electronics manufacturing players make in India today will speak to a future of leadership in LED Manufacturing as a whole, not just for India but worldwide. The LED market is expected to grow 20% per year and the Surface Mount Industry expected to reach a turnover of $5.42 billion by 2022, that is a CAGR of 8.9% 2017-2022.

Between SLNP (Street Lighting National Project), UJALA (Unnat Jeevan by Affordable LEDs and Appliances for All) which aims to supply domestic LEDs to constituents, and (DDUGJY) Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana which is a government plan designed to provide continuous power supply to rural India as well as distribute 27.3 million LED bulbs, there is a green surge of job and business creation that has so far saved 34,239 mn kWh/year and INR13,696 Cr/ year. In addition to relieving the planet of 2,77,33,505 tons CO2/year these measures are creating an urgent demand for EMS and ODM to become extremely serious about urgent planning and implementation. But this implementation doesn't come without careful analysis of suppliers. Reliable suppliers will be poised for optimal supply chains that build smart factories for the future with traceability, full automation, minimization of costs, top quality and reliability with 24 hour technical and automated support.

Key players in the India LED market are ramping up their automation and bringing full factory assembly, including SMT circuit board manufacturing, in house. This model will be ideal moving forward into a globalized, longevity-based model. Self-sufficiency in LED and electronic manufacturing will be a driving force toward complete automation process. Key players are aiming, not for just name brand but for high quality, full support systems in this burgeoning market. Key players include:

Key LED Categories

  • Philips India Limited
  • Havells India Limited
  • Bajaj Electricals Limited
  • Syska LED lights Pvt. Ltd.
  • Surya Roshni Limited

Key LED Types

  • Street lights & Flood Lights
  • Bulbs/ Lamps
  • Luminaires
  • Strip Lights

Key LED Categories

  • Roadways & Area lights
  • Residential lights
  • Commercial & Industrial lights

Urgency to ramp up EMS production facilities are in full swing. Even companies like Everready, known for their battery production are ramping up their LED manufacturing segment. Now is the essential time for factories to move forward with plans based on current and future forecasting.

Full line manufacturers in India are poised for great advantages as the world not only moves toward solid state lighting and increased EMS demands. Sample Line up:

Full Line SMT line for LED info@smthelp.com
Full Line SMT line for LED info@smthelp.com ROI

Quantifying PCB Design Efforts with μPCBComplexity


Quantifying PCB Design Efforts

The current design approach to PCBs does not fully account for quantifying efforts toward understanding the full scope of what a PCB design project can cost in its totality. It is valuable to consider the methods established to solve this problem proposed by Gollapudi Ramya and M.Anil Kumar in their study "μPCBComplexity" featured in the International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications. These methods are continually being evaluated, yet there is room for establishing an official algorithm for calculating the efforts (time & costs) for PCB design for your factory.

Factors that Contribute to the Complexity of Design Include:

# passive

# digital

# analog

# mixed signal

Total #

Total area (mm2)





Mixed Signal

PCB Size (mm2)

# of sides with components

# of routing layers

# of layers


Component Density


Pin Density

μPCBComplexity (hours)

Productivity Factory (level of designer experience)

Equations to Measure μPCBComplexity:

info@smthelp.com pcb complexity

Whereby ρ is a constant measuring design team productivity, per company/team, inversely proportional to S, the aggregate set of statistics that are weighted by (w) a constant associated with it which assigns a weight to the importance of every statistics used in the model.

Sample Measuring μPCBComplexity:

PCB Complexity Measurements

Finally, the factors that contribute to time and costs loss by not pre-calculating PCB design efforts should be allocated and quantified for best practices of design model systems. Only when we can begin to quantify complexity and relate that to design efforts will we be able to mark a designated expected outcome for cost and time.

PCB AOI Testing

THT Dual Sided AOI

THT Dual Sided AOI

THT Dual Sided AOI (DIP AVI)  - Before or after wave soldering, use high speed in-line AOI solution – Applicable for • Before or after Wave solder THT/DIP component insertion check (DIP through hole component) • Optional: Press-fit inspection ability of pressing parts • Optional: SMD component placement test ability.

IoT Integration Across Industry | Smthelp.com

Industry 4.0 Requires… Automation

The IoT Movement in Electronics Manufacturing

Industry 4.0 Requires... Automation

In the next revolution of manufacturing IoT, or Internet of Manufacturing, many adaptions will need to be made in order to reap the benefits of a truly smart factory that optimizes time, work force, efficiency, materials, supplier and full chain data analytics monitoring. But the key benefits that stand to be achieved are a great boost for the electronics manufacturing floor and business model. What do Electronics Manufacturing factories stand to gain from Industry 4.0? Here are some major improvements that can be expected:

  1. Smarter Supply Networks
  2. Intelligent Manufacturing Systems (remote visualization and engineer integration, remote monitoring, alerts, control, and remote production scheduling)
  3. Cloud Storage – secure processing, data storage and sharing on cloud network
  4. Advanced Decisions based on Data Analytics and real time monitoring
  5. Encrypted Technologies to protect against cyber threats
  6. Intelligent Sensors – integrated into machines that communicate on a wireless network that share data and analytics
  7. Smart Maintenance – predictive maintenance, remote monitoring and maintenance
  8. Mobile workforce - Augmented Reality devices for workers to process real-time alerts and information remotely
  9. Cyber physical system of interconnected social machines that work together to improve efficiency
  10. Robotics – use of flexible automated machines that can interact with humans and other machines
  11. Product intelligence – products that carry information for data analytics and decision making

Suppliers in IoT Manufacturing

Some vendors will be more interested in investing in your efforts to elevate to a 4.0 Industry factory by improving systems, using AR/VR/MR technologies to connect you to your machines, providing solutions and plans for upgrading to full automation. But the bottom line is that the trajectory to Industry 4.0 will require automation on every level that can possibly connect to a smart grid system of machine analytics, communications, control, and decision-making.

Solutions like real-time solder monitoring, data exchange formats like XML, and new standards of machine communication, like transitioning from SMEMA to more interconnected methods of SMT communication are on their way. Be prepared to work more closely with vendors based on their preparedness to serve this new model. Many major EMS factories are beginning to test the waters of integration in Industry 4.0. But the one thing that will be required of all future models of Electronics Manufacturing is automation of machine monitoring, engineering, communicating, delivering, and more. Automation is the key component moving us from sluggish manual system of unpredictable output to measurable systems with multiple streams of highly integrative data aimed at top performance decision-making.

IoT Integration Across Industry | Smthelp.com

AI, Auto Insertion : Axial Inserter; Radial Inserter; JW (Jumper Wire) Inserter; Odd form Inserter; PIN inserter; Eyelet Inserter; Terminal Inserter IM, Insertion Mount, MI,Manual Insertion, DIP, Wave soldering

6 Key Technologies for LED Pick & Place Machines

6 Key Technologies for LED Pick & Place Machines

At present, LED lighting products, environmental protection and energy saving, cost-effective features have been accepted by the market, while governments have introduced policies, phasing out incandescent, LED in the promotion of indoor lighting applications, LED light industry will become a solution to energy and the environment The term synonyms, LED lighting market rapid development. This rapid development will inevitably involve the LED placement machine, LED production equipment, the rapid development of the field.

First, SMT and placement machine

Surface mount technology (SMT), can also be called surface assembly technology, surface mount technology and patch welding technology. It is a board-level electronic assembly technology that mounts surface-mounted components (SMDs) onto printed circuit boards (PCBs). At present, advanced electronic products, especially in computer and communications electronics, has been widely used surface mount technology.

1.1 Advantages of SMT

SMT is with the development of the electronics industry was born, with the electronic technology, information technology, computer application technology development and development. The rapid spread of SMT benefits from its advantages.

1) components assembly density, electronic products, small size, light weight.

2) easy to achieve automation, improve production efficiency.

3) high reliability. Automated production technology ensures reliable connection of each solder joint, and because the surface assembly components (SMD) is leadless or short lead, and firmly mounted on the PCB surface, so its high reliability, seismic capacity Strong.

4) High frequency characteristics are good. Surface Assembling Components (SMD) No pin or segment pins, not only reduces the impact of the distribution characteristics, but also on the PCB surface welding solid, greatly reducing the parasitic capacitance and parasitic inductance between the lead, so to a large extent Reduce the electromagnetic interference and radio frequency interference, improve the high-frequency characteristics.

5) reduce costs. SMT PCB wiring density increases, reduce the number of holes, the area becomes smaller, with the function of the PCB layer to reduce the PCB manufacturing costs are reduced. Leadless or short lead SMC / SMD saves lead material, omitting thread cutting, bending process, reducing equipment, manpower costs. Increased frequency characteristics reduce RF commissioning costs. Electronic product volume reduction, weight reduction, reducing the cost of the machine. Welding reliability is good, making the cost of rework reduced.

LED lighting SMT PCB  13

1.2 SMT basic process

(1) SMT is a system engineering technology

(2) a typical SMT production line

1) to form a SMT production line must have three important equipment: printing press dispenser, placement machine, reflow furnace wave soldering machine, which wave soldering this process, with the development of surface mount technology, especially Bottom Lead IC Package BGA QFN a large number of applications, its role becomes more and more inadequate, so the current mainstream or reflow this process.

2) Whether it is for large machine manufacturers or medium-sized machine manufacturers, the classic can recommend SMT production line generally consists of two placement machine, a high-speed placement machine (chip components placement machine) 1 high-precision placement machine ( IC component placement machine), so that their duties, is conducive to the entire SMT production line to play the highest production efficiency. But now the situation is changing, a lot of placement machine manufacturers introduced a multi-function placement machine, making the SMT production line only by a patch machine composition possible. 1 multi-function placement machine to maintain a high patch speed in the case, you can complete all the components of the placement, reducing investment, by small and medium enterprises, Academy of Sciences of all ages.

1.3 The simplest placement machine model

The most basic placement machine consists of rack, circuit board clamping mechanism, feeder (not shown in the figure), patch head, nozzle and X, Y, Z axis, which Z axis in addition to Z can move , And can also be rotated in the θ direction (so as to adjust the rotation angle of the component from the pad).

1.4 LED placement machine

On behalf of the LED placement machine is a surface mount technology (SMT) placement machine in a, with the development of LED technology, the traditional SMT placement machine has been unable to meet the LED industry production needs, LED placement machine It came into being.

LED placement machine is designed specifically for the LED industry, custom SMT placement equipment, used to achieve large quantities of LED circuit board assembly. Equipment requires accuracy is not high, but requires fast speed. LED special placement machine to reduce the cost of patch equipment, and improve production efficiency. At present, many types of LED placement machine, but whether it is automatic high-speed placement machine or manual low-speed placement machine, their overall layout is similar.

Automatic LED placement machine is a computer control, collectors electrical as one of the high-precision automation equipment, by the rack, PCB transmission and bearing organization, drive and servo positioning system, placement head, feeder, optical identification System, sensor and computer control system, which through the suction - displacement - positioning - placement and some other functions, completed the SMD quickly and accurately mounted to the PCB board.

1.5 LED placement machine and the difference between the traditional placement machine

LED lighting SMT PCB  3

LED placement machine mainly to meet the 3014,2835,3528 and 5050,5630,5730 lamp beads placement accuracy requirements. Relative to the traditional placement machine processing accuracy, LED placement machine requirements are relatively low. But the LED placement machine is more focused on the performance, that is, the stability of the machine running, speed, operability, size requirements, so the requirements of the LED placement machine must have the following design ideas and hard requirements.

1) intelligent means more mature to use to the LED special placement machine, all kinds of excellent performance of the sensor can be implemented in the operation of the full collection of data to the computer disposal to protect the stability of the entire placement process and reliability. At the same time and other equipment, according to the scientific methods and technical specifications, regular LED placement machine maintenance, such as the machine and the circuit board surface dirt cleaning and washing, can effectively prevent the dust and dirt caused by poor internal heat dissipation, Causing overheating burnout devices. LED placement machine has a good stability in order to maximize efficiency for enterprises to produce benefits and reduce production costs.

2) LED placement machine speed must be fast, the minimum 18 000 points / h above the placement speed.

3) easy to learn and user-friendly operation method can greatly shorten the training time, and in the production process to reduce misuse, improve production efficiency and product quality.

4) LED placement machine can be mounted at least 1 200 mm length of the PCB, because a large part of the LED is to replace the traditional light pipe lighting, so the length will greatly exceed the traditional PCB size. In addition to these, in order to ensure that a single LED light board without color, requiring the placement of the entire batch of LED lights for the same color temperature BIN (BIN generally represents the LED lamp beads of some parameters range, different range can be used in different Number, said these parameters include voltage, color temperature, brightness, etc., so there will be voltage BIN, color temperature BIN, brightness BIN this argument, you can use BIN on behalf of the product model).

1.6 China LED placement machine technology development

As a fourth generation of light source of the huge market potential, coupled with the strong support of government policy, the domestic LED lighting industry is almost leapfrog development. From the early LED display hot, to the current transition to LED commercial lighting, interior lighting, outdoor lighting, lighting engineering, LED products from a single hot products, the transition to the field of LED applications and popularization.

LED development led to the relevant equipment industry hot, reflow, wave soldering, printing presses, LED placement machine, LED packaging equipment, the momentum of rapid development. At present, most of the domestic LED equipment can be mounted 1.2 m light board of the small placement machine, basically use the platform movement structure, combined with double swing arm movement, to achieve LED placement. Track LED placement machine in the country less. This is the next step, many enterprises in the development of a direction.

At present, the domestic LED placement machine technology is still in a primary stage. Developed products, can only meet the early needs of some small and medium enterprises. China is an electronics manufacturing power, need different grades of domestic LED placement machine. It must be based on the actual situation preferred models, reduce the difficulty of domestic LED placement machine development, rapid access to the electronic equipment industry.

Second, LED placement machine the most critical technology

2.1 precision machine photoelectric integration technology

In the process of LED placement machine, this technology reflects: the placement of the head through the precise mechanical movement of the components from the feeder to pick out and through the calibration body, the accurate and rapid installation of components to the PCB board The

2.2 visual technology

Take non-stop fast shooting positioning technology, to achieve optical image capture positioning, flight alignment.

2.3 magnetic levitation technology

Can solve the high speed and patch precision motion control technology Magnetic levitation linear motor drive applications, improved the original servo rotary motor screw screws exist low speed, noise shortcomings. Linear motor applications are magnetic levitation technology, no friction when moving, no resistance, high speed, long service life.

2.4 efficient intelligent software technology

With the composition and structure of the placement machine increasingly complex and diversified, the importance of placement machine software technology is more and more reflected. Efficient real-time multi-task parallel processing operating system, intelligent placement process optimization, automatic diagnostic technology is bound to greatly improve the efficiency of production and product quality.

LED lighting PCB 9

2.5 modular and system integration technology

The purpose of modular and system integration technology is to propose optimized and improved solutions for the three basic requirements of speed, accuracy and flexibility of LED placement machines. Flexible modular technology emphasizes the portability, interoperability, scalability and configurability of the device, providing a reconfigurable and openability of the device control platform to control requirements, enabling simple and efficient construction and completion of specific requirements Surface mount equipment to improve assembly productivity.

2.6 Motor uses lightweight design concept

Can significantly reduce the weight of the machine part of the movement, which makes the operation of the machine when the power consumption is also significantly reduced to only 1/4 of the ordinary placement machine consumption, power consumption up to 1/4 of the ordinary placement machine; LED placement machine The placement accuracy is not demanding, but requires faster. At present, the domestic professional for the LED placement machine, there are several to do, according to the speed can be divided into four different, six, eight equipment, you can refer to Taimu Rui LED640, LED660 V and LED680 V several LED special stickers The actual understanding of the machine. The middle of that number represents the number of patch head number. The higher the number, the higher the speed. LED placement machine mainstream applications should be able to mount a large area of ​​the PCB board, to meet the requirements of the online, so as to ensure the speed.

Third, LED placement machine development trend

LED placement machine in the manufacturing process plays a very important role in contemporary mainstream electronic assembly technology production equipment in the largest investment, the most technologically advanced, SMT production line production capacity and production efficiency of the largest equipment. In fact, the most failures, the speed bottleneck is largely from the patch of this process, so the development of placement machine equipment is the most compelling. Currently has the number and advanced level of placement machines, has become a business, regional or national electronic manufacturing capacity of the key signs. Here the development trend of the current placement machine described below.

3.1 LED placement machine is moving towards higher precision

Mounter accuracy refers to the placement machine X, Y-axis navigation movement of the mechanical precision and Z-axis rotation accuracy. Mounter using sophisticated mechanical and electrical integration technology to control the mechanical movement of the components from the feeder to capture and through the calibration mechanism after the precision and reliable placement to the circuit board. In order to produce products with higher performance, the first major challenge is to improve the placement accuracy of the placement machine. The following from the LED process began to say with a more accurate LED placement machine may be the future of LED production of the revolutionary impact.

In the ordinary LED packaging technology, the chip electrode with the support of the pin is generally connected through the gold wire to achieve the way, but the golden wire break has been one of the common causes of failure. LED lighting applications in the gold line is the cause of dead lights and light failure of such a common problem of the culprit. Dead lights can be divided into two cases, one is completely not bright, the other is hot state is not cold or bright, or flashing. The main reason for the absence of electrical circuit is open circuit, the reason is because the gold wire Weld or poor contact.

With the introduction of flip-chip welding technology, the two can be connected through a more stable metal bumps to connect, save costs and greatly improve the reliability and cooling capacity. LED has a long life and other advantages, with the flip-chip technology than the traditional use of gold wire interconnect packaging technology to play the advantages of LED, LED flip-chip welding technology to achieve a single chip and multi-chip module without gold Solid crystal plastic packaging, with high brightness, high light efficiency, high reliability, low thermal resistance, good color consistency and many other advantages.

LED non-gold line package that the industry commonly known as "no package" "free package." This process is the use of flip chip and circuit board direct SMT paste, the SMD package process omitted, directly flip the chip with SMT method to fit on the circuit board or carrier, because the chip area is much smaller than the SMD device, so This process requires a very sophisticated design.

The future of LED placement machine to improve the accuracy of the basic conditions, the direct use of flip-chip package without the process, which will be a small revolution LED process, you can save a lot of packaging costs, and greatly improve the production costs and shorten the production cycle, Making LED products really high performance and low price to enter the general lighting market. The LED placement machine directly to the LED process, great potential to become the future trend of technology.

LED lighting PCB 8

3.2 LED placement machine is developing in the direction of high efficiency

One of the most important features of today's society is competition. It is this competition that inspires people to explore innovation; it is this competition that promotes the ever-changing development of science and technology. Driven by the LED lighting market in full swing, LED placement machine's efficient work must become the core competitiveness of the embodiment. High efficiency is to improve production efficiency, reduce working hours, increase production capacity, and create economic benefits. On the basis of the current efficiency of the main methods are: to strengthen the LED placement machine automation performance and improve the equipment structure and work mode.

3.2.1 to strengthen the LED placement machine automation performance

The development and perfection of information science and technology today has greatly promoted the level of automation, such as automatic control, automatic adjustment, automatic compensation, automatic identification and so on to self-learning, self-organization, self-maintenance, self-repair and other higher level of automation become possible. At the same time for the placement of this automated CNC equipment, the efficiency of software programming to improve the efficiency of equipment is also essential to develop a more powerful software function system

Delivering LED Solutions to Market

Delivering LED Solutions to Market

The Parallel Evolution of LEDs and EMS

Delivering LED Solutions to Market

Delivering LED Solutions to Market

The symbiotic relationship of the Solid State Lighting Industry with Electronics Manufacturing is an ever-evolving one that requires a needs analysis where Electronics Solutions providers are able to deliver on the promise of full service and complete solutions. LED chips are the integral bond in the relationship of LEDs and electronics manufacturing along with full service provisions for LED Drivers and Power Supplies.

LED companies that struggle with PCB Design, especially in the age of IoT, require a complete source to assist with full scale projects from design to execution. An Electronics Manufacturing Expert who deeply understands PCB design longevity, lumen/watts issues, and the great many challenges that will rear their head in the near future, is key to a solid LED production line platform.

There are few go-to electronics industry brands that can truly offer one full scale solution from concept to solution to execution and profit. When considering your options, choose a company that guarentees full scale solutions and 24/7 support for your LED production line.


What is the ODM Product Solutions Process?

ODM, OEM, PCB Manufacturing and PCB Assembly Services

ONE-STOP PCB Assembly Solutions for EMS

We provide the one-stop for ODM, OEM, PCB manufacturing and PCB assembly services which can help you effectively shorten the sourcing time and accelerate production to get more market share. From the design, procurement of materials, testing and mass production to the packaging and shipping, we can make your docking seamless. We supply high-end production equipment, advanced management methods, experienced engineers, and skilled workers to ensure the highest quality, efficiency, and specifications. We are on track to becoming the world’s leading supplier of electronic manufacturing services (EMS) in end-to-end solutions and products for customers in the area of consumer electronics, automation, medical, automotive, security, telecommunications, networking and intelligent devices, and more.

ODM Product Solution Process:

1. Feasibility analysis for technical, underlying application, and the mold.

2. Schedule test and production plans.

3. Submit program proposal including the overall progress of the project, the specific implementation of program, cycle, and cost estimates and other aspects of information.

4. Schedule the hardware development: circuit diagram design, PCB circuit and shape design, sample processing, and other links.

5. Schedule the software development: the design of customer UI, driver bugging, application development and debugging.

6. Schedule the mold development: through CAD, 3D works build product outline, make sample and perform debugging.

7. Test the Sample Stage: the results of the integration of technical samples, functional stability testing.

8. Small batch stage: implement the customer acceptance test (UAT), through the actual use of the function, the application of feedback to return and make alterations toward improvement.

9. Mass Production.

10. File all of the project technical documentation.

ODM Product Solutions Process
PCBPCB assembly

How Do You Store Components Long-Term?

The Growing Need

Long-Term Storage of Components

The increasing requirement to store components for long periods of time creates challenges when accurately accounting for appropriate storage parameters. Whether you're protecting your ability to reproduce an identical product in the next year, safeguarding your inventory, or guaranteeing your price point, here are some considerations to make when storing your components long term.

Shelf life for components is determined by both the Bag Seal Date and the Humidity Indicator Card (HIC). 12 Months - 2 Years (max).

Moisture Control

Using a Dry Packs and/or Dry Atmosphere Cabinet to control moisture is essential for long-term storage of components. Low humidity can be maintained with dry air or Nitrogen and the ability to regain optimal moisture levels within 1 hour.

  • < 5% Relative Humidity (RH)
  • Nitrogen @ 25 ° Celsius +/-5
Temperature Control

Temperature is a critical factor when considering all aspects of preservation of components, especially oxidation & intermetallic formation.

12 Degress Celsius

The optimum parameters are subject to the details of each component as labeled on related packaging. Use the detailed information according to each component. As a general rule, however, in order to control for oxidation, corrosion, and intermetallic formation it is recommended to store components for no more than 2 years, at 12 ° Celsius, <5%RH.

Long Term Storage of Components | Smthelp.com

soldering robot | smthelp.com

Soldering Excellence: Achieve Your Perfect Soldering Process

Solving the Soldering Factor

Soldering Excellence

soldering robot | smthelp.com

Within the mass production sector of electronic manufacturing industry, the soldering process continues to be one of the most precarious processes that can literally make or break your PCBs. Finding the perfect soldering variables that provide reliability to mechanical and electrical joints are essential to keeping your components in place once a circuit has been assembled.

The size of electronics and their components are shrinking while the demand is growing at exponential rates, which forces manufacturers to find better and more efficient ways to create smaller parts, miniature circuit boards and components. Miniaturization of electronics creates a huge room for errors and failures, so every process especially the soldering process should be assessed for the best results for your final product. Having a healthy predictable standard of reproducability, ie. #good boards /oz.solder materials is a must for manufacturers running on slim margins, as one defect in the assembly process can lead to the entire process being discarded and large sums of money wasted on flaws not calculated ahead of time.

wave soldering
reflow soldering
reflow soldering1

Is your Soldering up to par? Consider these factors for Soldering Excellence:

  • solve speed concerns
  • provides endless flexibility
  • allow quick program customization
  • provides flexible programming to meet needs of wide variety of soldering applications of the automatic soldering machine
  • smaller work area
  • customization for your factory needs
  • provides endless flexibility with automation
  • adjustable heating
  • high speed soldering
  • minimize cycle time
  • excellent temperature control and auto tuning

Check out our new quick way to

get a quote herequick full factory assessment

S-W450 wave soldering machine

E-Series Lead Free Reflow Oven


What is AOI? Quality Testing and the Increasing Demand for AOI

Quality Testing Required

The Increased Demand for AOI

AOI Automated Optical Inspection Dual Sided

What is AOI? It is the Automated Optical Inspection of printed circuit boards (PCB). According to many current trade show and trade magazine polls, AOI is currently one of the top concerns for the majority of Electronics Manufacturers. Why? Because of the increasing demands for PCBA traceability and quality management that continue to rise exponentially year after year. Customers are now demanding that EMS companies utilize AOI as part of their PCB assembly. In fact, the current trajectory toward perfected PCBA processes are causing EMS companies that lack proper AOI equipment to lose contracts to those companies that are fully equipped and ready to handle the demands of AOI with the proper testing and inspection equipment.

AOI -- the increasing demand for AOI

Southern Machinery's solution to AOI requirements is complete with the THT Double Sided AOI (DIP AVI) Machine.


Pre-Soldering & Post-Soldering THT Dip Component Insertion Check

Press-fit inspection ability of pressing parts

SMD component placement test ability

Extra large 10cm Depth of field eliminates the effect component height

Extremely high speed (45 seconds for both sides. Serverboard 600x600 mm2)

Innovative vision algorithm eliminate PCB/Placement variation and detects defects perfectly.

Typical Defects Detected

Missing or wrong component

Optical shape recognition

Color and brand inspection

Polarity check

Electrolytic capacitors, resistors, and diodes

All components with text including IC's (character verification)

Connectors and other components with polarity requirements

Solder bridge & solder joint

Options functions:

Press-fit inspection, down to 0.5x0.5mm

Lifted Components & Pin shifting (top side)

Pin invisible & Pin unseated (bottom side)

SMD inspection (down to 0603 package)

Drop / Wrong parts / Polarity check

Missing components (down to 0402 package)

Label inspection by OCR



Fiducials and Pad Sites

Fiducials and Pad Sites

A fiducial is a board feature used for global and local error correction to determine the difference between programmed coordinates and actual locations on the board. This ensures that parts are not placed before their locations are verified.


A pad site is a pad pattern on the production board that can be used in the same manner as a fiducial.


The most typical types of fiducial failures are caused by improper color, size of fiducial, and lighting values. Other factors such as the confidence level and search area can also be trouble spots but as the programmer’s experience level increases, these will be less likely to cause problems.


How many fiducials to use on a board or circuit will depend on board quality and the amount of time the manufacturing process can allocate to finding fiducials. The following is a general guide as to the number of fiducials used and the benefits of accuracy.



Number of Fiducials Found

Correction Possibilities




X and Y



X, Y, and Theta




X, Y, Theta, and Uniform Stretch



X, Y, Theta, and Independent X & Y Stretches

6-10 (max)


X, Y, Theta, Independent X & Y Stretches, and Corners not equal to



The total number of fiducials and pad sites that can be used for a global correction cannot exceed ten.


To use a combination of fiducials and pad sites for global error correction, you must assign them in the Circuit List window.


The total number of fiducials and pad sites that can be used for a local correction cannot exceed five.


To use a combination of fiducials and pad sites for local error correction, you must assign them in the Local Fiducials dialog box in the Placement List window.


When creating a fiducial or pad site, use the Tab key to move between the data fields. If you use the Enter key, the fiducial placement is attempted and error checking is performed.


To successfully create valid fiducial placements:

–      Fiducials must be placed within the borders of the board.

–      Fiducials cannot be placed directly on offsets. (Fiducials placed on circuits

are automatically duplicated on all the offsets associated with that circuit.)

–      Fiducials cannot be partially on a board or circuit.


If a fiducial is on an offset and that offset is rotated, the fiducial location is rotated but the fiducial is not. Only fiducials with rotational symmetry are supported in this manner. All others will not be found.


If multiple fiducial or pad site definitions are selected when using the Fiducial or Pad Site Copy function, all new fiducials and pad sites are distanced from the originals by the same X and Y Offset values.


If fiducials or pad sites are consistently not found by the vision system, lower the confidence level. If the vision system finds objects other than the fiducials or pad sites, increase the confidence level.


When defining a search area, keep in mind that it should be large enough to allow some tolerance in board handling, but not so large that additional board features are found instead of the fiducial or pad.


Some recommended lighting levels for fiducials and pad sites.


Fiducial Type / Pad Site

Inner Ring

Outer Ring

Tinned / Tinned

80 / 80

20 / 20

Solder Mask over Bare Copper (not recommended) / Gold

0 / 0

50 / 35

Bare Copper with Copper Bright / Bare Copper

0 / 0

35 / 35



The pad site functionality is not available for the Odd Form system at this time.


In most cases, standard lighting cannot be used to image a pad site since solder paste or flux may not allow a good contrast between the pad site and the circuit board. Special lighting settings may need to be installed in order to image the pad site. If  Pad Site Find is the only way to get component corrections, and lighting is the only issue, consult your UIC Application Engineer.


Use the Fiducial Lighting procedure located in the Operation Features Module within the User’s Guide, to determine whether a pad site can be imaged with the PEC camera. Verify contrast and the lighting level required.


When to use Pad Site Find

1) When fiducials do not exist on the circuit board

2) When the pad site accurately represents a component type

3) When fiducials do not give an accurate enough correction

4) When accuracy is more important than speed


If any errors occur finding pad sites, you will be taken to the Fiducial Repair screen. In the case of failed pad site finds, manual alignment is not recommended. For GSM1 systems, select the Reject Board button to remove the board. For GSM2 systems, palm down the machine to manually remove the board.


The need for a pad site correction is more typical of fine pitch placements such as C4 placements or fine pitch BGA’s.


Pad sites are based on component definitions. To associate a pad site definition with a component, the component must be defined in the database. Refer to the New Component module for information on adding a component to the database.



PEC Lighting


On the GSM machine, a Pattern Error Correction (PEC) camera passes an image to the vision system which attempts to recognize a programmed fiducial or pad site based on parameters in the Fiducial or Pad Site List. These parameters consist of type and size, center of fiducial identified by its “X,Y coordinates”, and the search area identified by “Search Area X,Y”.


After the PEC camera moves to the programmed location of the fiducial, it illuminates the Search Area using the programmed “IN/OUT” (inner ring/outer ring) light levels. Within the search area of the image, light intensity differences between the fiducial and the board help the vision system detect the fiducial’s edges.


The vision system is able to detect the North, South, East, and West edges of the fiducials by relying on the differences in contrast between the board and the fiducial color. Called vector points, triangles of red, blue, green, and yellow are displayed in the Vision Window.

The vision system uses six vector points per edge (N, S, E,W). In order for the vision system to obtain 100% confidence, 24 out of 24 of the vector points must be detected on an edge of a fiducial. The default confidence level is 80% (19.2 rounded up to 20 vector points).


Since the success of fiducial finds depends on the vision system’s ability to discern the contrast between the board and the fiducial, some combinations of fiducials (or object(s) to find) and their backgrounds may call for different types of PEC cameras. Currently 2-sided and 4-sided lighting is being used and FlexLight, a new feature, will soon be available. The 2-sided PEC camera was non-symmetrical in its lighting pattern. It illuminated in one direction, from the North and South. The 4-sided PEC camera improved on this by illuminating in four directions, from the North, South, East, and West. Originally both cameras used red LED’s.  When looking at solder-mask covered fiducials, the red light would be absorbed by the solder mask (green). To overcome this problem, green LED’s were added. The 4-sided scheme expanded the capability to illuminate gold fiducials on white ceramic as well as fiducials on flexible circuits.


FlexLight (trademark) is an enhanced PEC lighting module.  It was originally developed to address the imaging challenges associated with advanced substrates such as ceramics and flexible circuits.  Although FlexLight was initially targeted at these markets, it can effectively image a wide variety of substrate materials ranging from FR-4 to more exotic materials.  The chief advantages of FlexLight are: 1) Symmetric illumination, 2) Polarization flexibilty,

3) Wavelength flexibility, 4) Ease of reconfiguration, and 5) Monolithic design.


A mechanical support structure holds eight LED petals and an inner LED ring. Each petal is a small printed circuit board containing 10 LED’s.  The petals can contain light sources of various wavelengths ranging from blue to red.  The petals and the inner ring can be exchanged in a “plug-and-play” fashion.  This allows the illumination wavelengths of the module to be quickly and easily changed.  It also facilitates ease of service in the field. The supporting electronics allow the petals to be configured in various series and parallel combinations to support a wide variety of LED’s.


The structure supports an optional polarizing film that covers four of the eight petals as shown in the following diagram.

Corner Feature Enhancement for Multipattern Components


Multipattern components consist of components or objects (RF shields, connectors etc.) which cannot be described adequately as either leaded or leadless components, but rather are defined in terms of an arrangement of geometric features.  The multipattern object is located by locating each of the features of which it is comprised, using a single or multiple fields of view.  One such feature, which is commonly used to locate rectangular or pseudo-rectangular objects, is the corner feature.  At present, this feature is defined simply by entering the length of each of the two line segments, which make up the 90 degree corner (the horizontal corner edge length and the vertical corner edge length).  With this special software, this feature definition has been extended to allow for two more optional parameters.  These parameters define “ignore zones” at the apex of the corner, and allow the image processing to ignore these regions of the edges when locating the corner.  By this means corners which are rounded, chamfered or poorly defined at the apex can still be located by using segments of the corner away from the apex, which subtend 90 degrees to each other.


The diagram below indicates the meaning of each of the parameters.






X2, Y2 should not exceed 25% of X1, Y1

If  X2 or Y2 = 0, the standard corner find is employed






Enhanced Product Setup



A very helpful feature when programming components is Enhanced Product Setup. It consists of two parts, Enhanced Component Setup and Enhanced Board Setup. Each process involves a live image, of the object being taught, to be manipulated while the programmer sees the changes as they are being made.


When defining a new component, fill in as many data fields as possible while paying special attention to the following; Component Height, PreOrient, Number of Leads, Lighting Type, Camera Type, Default Feeder, Default Orientation, and Reject Station.


Enhanced Component Setup supports, Four Spindle, C4, OFA (Oddform Assembly) and High Accuracy (UFP) Heads.


If anything goes wrong with the Platform machine during this entire process (reject station not mounted, feeder not mounted, exclusion zone, drop bin not defined, centering fails due to invalid parameter, etc…) recover by palming the machine down, and up again. Then push the Start button and proceed to pick the part again.


If the Platform machine was not calibrated correctly prior to using EPS, the scale of the drawing may be incorrect and the Draw Component function cannot be used.


All changes made are immediately written back to the database scroll list where the part was defined. Exit the Inspection screen at any time to view the results of the changes there. Nothing is saved permanently until the part is saved.



Common ECS Hinderances and Solutions


Before the part can be picked, all the values associated with component definition must be entered. This is necessary because these values are all needed to inspect a component.


All changes to the drawing are immediately applied to the definition database of the component. If a mistake is made, rectify the error by using the Undo function. No change is permanent until the component is saved.


To switch from editing the body of the drawing to any of the leads/bumps/features, click on the leads/bumps/features. To switch back to editing the body, click where there is no lead/bump/feature.


Due to the method used for programming leads, it can be difficult to line up all the leads over their displayed counterparts. This is because pitches are measured from the center of the side of the component, and when they are adjusted, leads move symmetrically out or in from/to the center. To help the adjustment, if there is an odd number of leads, position the single lead in the center of a side over its corresponding displayed counterpart. If there is an even number of leads, position the two center leads over their displayed counterparts before adjusting the pitch.


To define a C4 component it is sometimes convenient to define only one bump initially, and add bumps when the image is displayed, wherever necessary until the part is found. This is a good procedure because it may be difficult to determine how bumps will image before seeing an image of the part.


When dealing with a large number of leads/bumps at once (over 50), the drawing function will automatically move only the single lead selected, instead of all the leads. This is done to increase the performance of the drawing operations. If less than 50 leads/bumps are selected, they will all be repositioned at once to give a better indication of their final positions.


One of the more difficult things to deal with is when the displayed part’s rotation is slightly off. Make sure that the feeder pick position is optimal to present the part accurately. Use the pick/inspect/drop-off sequence more than once if necessary until the part is basically square on the screen.


Lead groups can cause additional problems. The drawing always assumes that all leads are present on a side, but does not draw some of them if they were deselected in the leadgroup screen. This can make it difficult for pitches to be adjusted.


If the component is too large to fit into a single field of view, the vision system will take more than one image and stop at the first image where it could find all leads/bumps/features. This might be the first image seen, or the last. If the part is found successfully, it will be the last. This makes editing of the components, by using the Draw Component function, difficult. Sometimes it is more convenient in this case to go back and forth between the Database Component Definition screen and the Inspection screen.


When viewing a component on the monitor, the image detail may require enhancement. With the use of Vision Level Diagnostics, the operator can increase or decrease the detail of the viewed image by raising or lowering the current vision level. By increasing the Vision Level Diagnostics to a level 5 setting, the operator can view the image with the maximum amount of detail. Using a lower vision level results in a decrease in display detail.




Specific Component Programming


If a change is necessary while adding a  new component to the database, do not change the component type, exit and begin the procedure again.


The Accuracy field applies only to a GSM2 (Dual Beam) machine. When the value is set at high, this means stop the opposite beam while I place this particular part with the other beam. Our accuracy studies indicate there is no need to ever run the machine with this value set to high. It adversely effects throughput and does not contribute to the accuracy of the machine when placing standard SM devices. Ignore this field for any other machine configuration.


For parts that do require a more accurate placement it may be advantageous to turn on preorient.  This indicates to the machine that the part will be rotated to it’s place rotation prior to being scanned through the upward looking camera.This allows the machine to minimize the amount of correction required after being centered and inherently contributes to a more accurate and repeatable placement.  It does however adversely affect throughtput.  Therefore, if you find you the placement accuracy does not meet your expectation with preorient turned off, turn it on and reevaluate the accuracy/repeatability of your placements.


When choosing a lighting level for BGA, C4, or C4-Pattern components, a level of +7 should only be used with side-lighting.



C4 Types


The following restriction applies to programming C4 components on a machine equipped with an AISI 3500 vision system: A maximum of 16 unique C4 components, with 20 programmed features per component, can be contained in a product. This restriction is based on the number and type of programmed C4 features.


Placement pressure values above 350 grams are typically used for C4 applications. If the placement head is not C4 capable, these pressures will not be possible.


The current bump process is ‘A’, selected as the default. Bump processes B-E are reserved for future UIC vision inspection algorithms.


The X or Y Vector value will be ignored if the X or Y Number value equals 1.


The % Bumps Required for a C4 component is the percentage of bumps required to return an accurate image.


If C4-Pattern is not available from the Component Types list box, you must create a new database. This is done by using the New option under the Database menu bar heading. If desired, existing component definitions can then be brought into the new database using the Merge option.


For C4-Pattern, the value for Critical should be chosen as Yes.


There should be no entry in the Min Precise Patterns, Pattern Inspection, Location Tolerance X, Location Tolerance Y, or Relative Distance fields.


BGA  Types (Requirements and Limitations)


A special version of software is needed, developed after an RFQ, for use with UPS 2.x


The component can only be processed in a single field of view


The appropriate magnification, circular lit camera (circular lit cameras take up 2 additional feeder slots


The vision system must be an AIS630 Lantern vision system only.


The % Bumps Required for a BGA component is the percentage of bumps required simply to display an image.


Missing Ball detection for BGA components


Centering – the vision system identifies the defined features (bumps) and determines the x, y, and theta corrections required for an accurate placement. Bump Process A should be chosen in the component definition.


Inspection – after the centering process is complete, an additional algorithm is applied to determine if any bumps are missing. When centering and inspection are is desired, Bump Process E should be chosen in the component definition.

This software inspects BGAs for missing balls using a two step approach.  First the regular ball find algorithm is executed and five candidates are selected as potential missing ball sites.  The selection is based on either the failure to locate a ball at an expected site, or a low correlation, or ball recognition score.  Then an intelligent pattern recognition algorithm is trained  on sites which are known to contain good ball images, and the trained algorithm is used to classify the suspect sites and verify the presence/absence of a solder ball.  Various graphic overlays are used during the execution of the algorithm:


  • It will be necessary to use circular lighting for bump imaging in order to realize optimum reliability. This is because the image quality of balls with the standard lighting is poor.
  • This algorithm uses a training method based on balls which are found.  If the image quality is such that noise can be incorrectly labeled as a ball, it is possible to mis-train the algorithm and fail to correctly identify missing balls.
  • Only components which fit into a single field of view can be processed.
  • In order to switch on missing ball inspection the customer must select “processing type E” in the product editor (the default is A).  This processing type flag is provided to allow for customer defined image processing and in general is not used.  It is expected that using this flag will have no impact on the overall functionality of the machine, since processing types B-D are still available for customer specific tuning.
  • This will be a special vision release to support the missing ball inspection.
  • The five missing ball candidates are labeled by blue crosses with blue boxes.
  • The trained existing balls around the missing ball candidates are labeled by blue crosses only
  • The recognized missing ball is labeled by a small red cross on the center of the candidate label


If the colored graphics are an annoyance, you can change the Vision Diagnostic Level. The value is probably set at 4 or 5. The range is between 0-5. The lower the value the faster the machine.


BGA Type

1.4x UPS

Pick and Place


2.x UPS

Pick and Place


Special Camera


for inspection

Missing Ball



CBGA (ceramic)




Need Analysis

CCGA, White (ceramic-column)





CCGA, Dark (ceramic-column)








2.6-3.0 Mil/Pixel Camera

Need Analysis

PBGA (plastic)





TBGA (taped)



Circular Lighting




Maximum Single Field of View Size

Minimum Pitch

Minimum Ball Diameter

Super High Mag (0.5 mil/pixel)

4mm (0.160”)

0.125mm (0.005”)

0.075mm (0.003”)

High Mag

(1.0 mil/pixel)

10mm (0.39”)

0.25mm (0.010”)

0.125mm (0.005”)

Medium Mag

(2.6 mil/pixel)

20.8mm (0.8”)

0.5mm (0.20”)

0.25mm (0.010”)

Medium Mag

(3.0 mil/pixel)

24mm (0.8”)

0.5mm (0.20”)

0.25mm (0.010”)

Standard Mag

(4.0 mil/pixel)

32mm (1.25”)

0.8mm (0.031”)

0.4mm (0.016”)


Leaded Components


Lead information must be programmed symmetrically. Information entered for Sides 1 and 2 of the component is input to Sides 3 and 4, respectively. The data can then be edited. To accommodate nonsymmetrical components or components with different lead lengths or pitches, the Lead Groups option may be used.


Lead groups can cause additional problems. The drawing always assumes that all leads are present on a side, but does not draw some of them if they were deselected in the leadgroup screen. This can make it difficult for pitches to be adjusted.


If 0.0 (zero) is entered in any of the following Tolerance data fields, that inspection is bypassed; Lead Tolerance From Body, Lead Tolerance Across Body, Lead Spacing Tolerance, Lead Length Positive Tolerance, Lead Length Negative Tolerance, Coplanarity Tolerance, and Colinearity Tolerance.


If an excessive number of components are rejected, check the component definition relative to vendor specification sheet for the component. Also, use ECS (Enhanced Component Setup) to adjust inspection parameters (geometry, lighting, etc…).


Lead Groups


The Lead Groups window is not used to toggle leads off for the purpose of increasing the speed of vision inspection (SMC components only). This will only result in a rejected component. All components must be defined as they physically exist. Non-symmetrical leads can be accommodated by defining the component as a Special-Leaded Component.


Lead 1 in the component database is not necessarily the component’s electrical pin 1. It is only the first lead in the lower left corner of the component when the component is in the 0° orientation. We define/assign leads as beginning with lead one in the lower left hand corner and count up as we define the part in a counter-clockwise fashion.


If you select the Remove All Leads option, all component leads are toggled off and considered to be phantom leads. If a lead was already toggled off when the Remove All Leads option was selected, it would remain off.


If you select the Enable All Leads option, all component leads are toggled on and are inspected by the vision system. If a lead was already toggled on when Enable All Leads option was selected, it would remain on.


Special Leaded Components


Program the component as if all leads on the same side are identical and symmetrical with each other.

When defining a component with different pitches, find the greatest common denominator and enter that as the pitch.


The machine memory supports a maximum of 15 lead groups per component.


When all lead information is entered, select the Lead Groups option. Select the leads you want to be ignored by the vision system. The leads are now phantomed with just a broken line to indicate their existence.



Let’s use the 23pin SMT connector as an example…  There are physically 12 leads on one side of the device and 11 on the opposite side. It would be a reasonable approach to define both sides as having 23 leads with a pitch of 1mm, and turning off every other lead in a manner where the database matches the physical description of the part. However, by turning off every other lead this creates 23 lead groups, and this is why the machine hangs up!


We define/assign leads as beginning with lead one in the lower left hand corner and count up as we define the part in a counter-clockwise fashion.  For example, for a 14 pin SOIC, lead # 1 is in the lower left corner and lead # 14 is in the upper left corner (assuming the part is defined with the leads facing north and south).  There are two lead groups when we define a 14 pin SOIC.  Lead group 1 is defined as leads 1-7 and lead group 2 is defined as leads 8-14.  However, if you turn off lead 4 there are now 3 lead groups (lead group 1 = leads 1-3, lead group 2 = leads 5-7, and lead group 3 = leads 8-14).  Notice lead 4 is not included.


By turning off every other lead you are creating 23 lead groups. We only have enough RAM on the machine controller to support a maximum of 15 lead groups. However, the number of lead groups is dynamic and can be limited (reduced) by the number of components, component placements, and process complexity.  Therefore, the number of supported lead groups can be £ 15, depending on the product complexity.


Program the part as it is…  Assuming the part is coming in tape and the12 leads are facing 6 O’clock and the 11 leads are facing 12 O’clock, let’s define the part as having 12 leads on side 1 at a pitch of 2mm and side 3 as having 11 leads at a pitch of 2mm.












Component Terminology


Acronym            Name


BGA                   – Ball Grid Array

uBGA                 – micro Ball Grid Array

CBGA                 – Column Ball Grid Array

C4 or Flip Chip   – Controlled Collapse Chip Connection

COB                    – Chip On Board

CSP                     – Chip Scale Package

DCA                   – Direct Chip Attach

FPT                     – Fine Pitch Technology (20 to 40 mil pitch)

ILB                     – Inner Lead Bonding

MCM                  – Multi Chip Module

MELF                 – Metalized ELectrode Face bonded

MSP                    – Mini Square Pack

OLB                    – Outer Lead Bonding

OMPAC              – Over Molded Plastic pad Array Carrier

PBGA                 – Plastic Ball Grid Array

PLCC                  – Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier

PQFP                  – Plastic Quad Flat Package

QFP                     – Quad Flat Package

SOD                    – Small Outline Device

SOIC                   – Small Outline Integrated Circuit

SOJ                     – Small Outline J lead

SOT                     – Small Outline Transistor

SQFP                  – Shrink Quad Flat Package; QFP with a lead pitch of .016” or less

TAB                    – Tape Automated Bonding

TSOP                  – Thin Small Outline Package

UFPT                  – Ulta Fine Pitch Technology (<20 mil pitch)

V-QFP                – Very Small Quad Flat Package

V-SOP                – Very Small Outline Package




Industry Terms


CER-QUAD              – Digital Equipment Component

C-QUAD            – Northern Telecom Package

Tape Pak             – Trade Mark/National Semiconductor

V-PAK         – Vertical Package (Texas Instruments – memory package)